- What is difference between scaling and fouling?
- What is TDS cooling tower?
- What is TR cooling capacity?
- What is drift eliminator in cooling tower?
- Is hand sanitizer a biocide?
- Is soap a biocide?
- Why are chemicals added to cooling water?
- What are spray nozzles used for on a cooling tower?
- How do you remove algae from a cooling tower?
- How can I improve my cooling tower performance?
- How do biocides kill bacteria?
- What should be the pH of cooling tower water?
- What causes scaling in cooling towers?
- What are the types of cooling towers?
- What is ORP in cooling tower?
- How effective are cooling towers?
- What is a biocides in water treatment?
- Which chemical is used in cooling tower?
What is difference between scaling and fouling?
When cooling systems operate, water with fouling factors flow through the system: Hard water causes scaling, whereas seawater can cause biofilm, or growth of micro and macro species.
As fouling increases, two things occur: First, the volume of water that can flow through the heat exchanger is reduced..
What is TDS cooling tower?
Cooling towers are used within some businesses for process water cooling or as part of an air-conditioning system. … ‘Bleed’, ‘blow-down’ or ‘dump’ cycles – as water is evaporated, concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) increase which is detrimental to the efficient operation of the unit.
What is TR cooling capacity?
Ton of Refrigeration (TR): Ton of Refrigeration (abbreviated as TR) is an important historical unit of refrigeration capacity. … American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) defines 1 TR as equivalent to a refrigeration capacity of 3516.85 W or 3023.95 kcal/h.
What is drift eliminator in cooling tower?
Drift eliminators are designed to capture large water droplets caught in the cooling tower air stream. The eliminators prevent the water droplets and mist from escaping the cooling tower. … 001% of the re-circulating water flow rate.
Is hand sanitizer a biocide?
A hand sanitiser is regarded as a biocide product when it is presented to consumers as having a primary biocidal function. In this case meaning sanitation and/or disinfection of the hands with the primary goal to kill/neutralise/render harmless the microorganisms on the hands.
Is soap a biocide?
But whereas hand soap and mouthwash are clearly cosmetic products, the fact that they have antibacterial or antiseptic properties might also lead to their classification as biocidal products. These can be then considered as “borderline” products between cosmetics and biocides.
Why are chemicals added to cooling water?
Chemical addition At this point in the process, there is typically the use of chemicals, such as: corrosion inhibitors (e.g., bicarbonates) to neutralize acidity and protect metal components. algaecides and biocide (e.g., bromine) to reduce the growth of microbes and biofilms.
What are spray nozzles used for on a cooling tower?
Spray nozzles with plate are used to distribute water in wet cooling towers. Cooling towers are evaporative heat rejection devices, which take out the waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of water by the air.
How do you remove algae from a cooling tower?
You can use chemicals to prevent the growth of algae, and/or to prevent sediment formation. Eg;- Chlorine and Bromine. Use Phosphoric acid to prevent formation of sediments. Use bicarbonates to maintain pH of the water in cooling tower.
How can I improve my cooling tower performance?
How to Improve Water Efficiency on Your Cooling TowerPiping Change. Simple repairs like a change to the water piping can help you mange your energy consumption. … Focus on Recycling. … Periodically Inspect all Equipment. … Increase Cooling Cycles.
How do biocides kill bacteria?
When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which acts as a general biocide killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.
What should be the pH of cooling tower water?
between 6.5 and 7.5A pH between 6.5 and 7.5 is considered the ideal range for reducing scale formation, says the EDF, though some non-acid treatments for scale prevention can increase the cooling tower PH range up to 8.5. The pH also depends on the cycles of concentration — COC.
What causes scaling in cooling towers?
Scale deposits form when the solubility of dissolved minerals in the cooling water is exceeded. Cooling towers function by evaporating a percentage of the water into the atmosphere.
What are the types of cooling towers?
The types of cooling towers based on the air flow generation are Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Cross-flow and Counter-flow towers.Natural Draft cooling towers use the design and shape of the tower itself to move up the air naturally using fans. … Mechanical Draft towers tend to use a fan to force the air.More items…•
What is ORP in cooling tower?
Monitoring the ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential)/redox is very useful in its ability to correlate millivolt readings to sanitization strength of the water. For Chlorine (Cl2) to function properly in the cooling towers it must be present in the oxidizing forms of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypochorite ion (OCl-).
How effective are cooling towers?
iii) Cooling tower effectiveness (in percentage) is the ratio of range, to the ideal range, i.e., difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature, or in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach).
What is a biocides in water treatment?
A biocide is a chemical treatment that is formulated to effectively control microbial growth. Problems caused by un-controlled microbial growth can range from health hazards, the breakdown of chemicals, the development of biofilms , heat transfer losses, restriction of flow and under deposit corrosion.
Which chemical is used in cooling tower?
Organic dispersants – These cooling tower water treatment chemicals can be used to prevent fouling and the accumulation of biofilms. Chlorine dioxide – This chemical can be used as a disinfectant to destroy microorganisms and prevent recurring growth.